Author´s Introduction

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Native Calendar Systems

1.   Day : Sun; Rainbow; (Moon) (Short Earth Day Count)

2.   Night:  Moon; Planets; Stars; Milky Way Contours. (Short Earth Night Count)

3.   Seasons: Often 4 basic Element related. Hot; Dry; Cold; Wet. (“Elementary Count”)

4.   Earth Solar Day Year: 365.2 days; Earth solar orbit. (Middle Earth Count)

5.   Earth Cosmic Night Year: Stars; Constellations; Milky Way Contours. (Long Count)

AD: Measuring methods.

1.   Measuring and marking the daily rise, the noon and the setting of the Sun.

2.   The same, except from the Sun, goes for # 2.

3.   Measuring and marking the cycle of Solar high- and low rises, noon’s and settings throughout the year.

4.   Same as # 3.

5.   Measuring a specific Star turning back to the same local marking point.(Often a stone)


Many ancient cultures basically divided their cosmos in 3 Worlds or primary dimensions, namely:

1.   The Upper World

2.   The Middle World, and:

3.   The Underworld

World Explanations:

These 3 prime Worlds or dimensions all again could be divided in furthermore 3 sub dimensions, telling of 9 Worlds or dimensions in all.

The main division was/is based on the on your geographical location of observation – where ever you are located on the Earth. This World is always The Middle World, as for instants with the Midgaard in Norse Mythology where humans etc. etc. are living.

A part of the Night Upper World is the one of the Heaven where the “Light Beings”; the Moon; Planets; Single Stars and Star Constellations can be observed. (This goes of course both for the southern and northern hemispheres). In the North Mythology, this World/dimension is called the Asgaard.

- Another part of both the Upper- and Underworld deals specifically with the giant whitish colored (mythologically, often also described as the Night Rainbow) contours of the Milky Way which is the largest figure/structure on the night Sky.

The Upper- and Underworld is of course divided accordingly to the day- and night view where the Sun; Moon; Planets; Stars; Star Constellations and Milky Way Contours are rising above and setting below the actual horizon, “going up and under” down in the Underworld.

The farthest part away in both the Upper- and Underworld is called the Udgaard in Norse Mythology where all the Giants/Jaetter lives. These mythologically human- ; animal-; and anthropomorphic beings are of course named Giants because they belong to the giant figure of the Milky Way. “Ud” is Danish for “out”, meaning in this matter “long distance away”.

- From these basically and physical observations, all the Myths are being constructed all over the World – though: Together with spiritual meditation and visions where an individual were/are in direct contact with specific forces of Creation, a spiritual overlay of telling was/is added to tell of the very Story of Creation. A story that deals with the very basics of elementary creation, again very often described with “deities names with elementary qualities” of fire, water, soil and air, a telling which is very recognizable when first observed in almost every mythological telling from all cultures all over the World.


It is my belief that most of the ancient cultures have used the Sun as a Calendar system. But even in our time there are religions who determine their rituals according to the Moon, for instant the Christianity where the Moon moves the Christian celebrations from year to year.

From the time where people become more settled and agricultural, it was expedient to be able to measure the Sun trough the year.

The left drawing show the cardinal directions in order to measure and mark the seemingly movement of the Sun trough the day and year. Compared to a Rock Carving from Madsebakke, the Island of Bornholm, Denmark.

A very simple system of Sun measuring is to set a pole on the favourite spot and mark the shadow of the Sun trough the day and year.

The famous Megalith monument of Stonehenge could very easy have started as a wooden henge of poles as shown above.


A monument from Jantar Mantar, India, measuring the Sun positions trough the day and year.

In order to follow the cycles of the day and night and the year, you have to mark the movements of the Sun and the Stars. That is just what our ancestors did by setting at stone or a pole and marking the Sun shadow on different positions.

The oval shaped figures above has been mentioned as a "stone row ship setting". The oval shaped structures of stones are often interpret by modern astro-archaeologists as having an astronomical function, which very well can be the truth because you can get the specific shape by setting a stick in the ground to mark the movements of the Sun throughout the day and the year. Picture 2 is a Danish ship- like rows of stones from Glavendrup, Denmark.

This animation shows how the shape to the Stone Row Settings and the shape of the Viking Ship appears. In the centre, a pole is standing and the lines in the periphery marks the different Sun positions throughout the day as well the year. If one imagines both the oval shape and its different shadow markings as the origin figure to the later material Viking Ship, you even get the Shields on the side of the Ship from the Sun marking points in the oval shape.


Every old culture have their Story of Creation. Even the Bible have descriptions of the Calendar Wheels and Wheels of Creation in the Book of Ezekiel: "Now as I beheld the living creatures, behold one wheel upon the earth by the living creatures, with his four faces". And: "The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the colour of a beryl . . .". Several times Ezekiel talks about "the firmament" which of course is a Story of Creation and how the different Wheels moves in the movement of Creation.

WHEEL 1: Milky Way Directions and The 4 ANIMALS
1. Sagittarius (Centre)                    5 The Bull                     
2. Gemini                                       6 The Lion
3. Virgin                                         7 The Serpent 
4. Pisces                                         8 The Horse     
In order to be able to follow the seasonal changes, the positions of the Sun was marked with 4 stationary stones. If a more precise calendar was wanted, the wheel could be divided into 4 more stationary stones. These extra 4 markings was very often depicted as "the 4 animals".


The Earth orbit around the Sun shows the stars in the Zodiac and the stars shows the directions in the Galaxy which are very important according to the Story of Creation. The most important direction is of course the direction to the centre of the Galaxy in the Star constellation of Sagittarius, The Archer, who hit the centre of the target, the Milky Way Centre.

Many old cultures used the bright stars of Vega and Sirius as a guideline towards the centre in our Galaxy where the direction from Sirius over the polar centre to Vega pointed to the galaxy centre in the star constellation of Sagittarius.
In order to mark the precession movement in the Milky Way Wheel, 1 object in the calendar system should be placed and moved 1 degree every 72. years because of the difference between the Solar Year and the Celestial Year. It was/is of course very important to move these markings. Otherwise the cultural society would get out of synchronization with the story of Creation, which is specially connected to the Milky Way facts.
Many astro-archaeological scientists overlook very often the fact, that many cult places, churches and temples also have the cosmological data of our Galaxy build in the structure of the buildings. Even though many astro-archaeological scientists are mentally minded to use alternative approaches and ideas in order to analyze the meanings of the old buildings and cultural places, it is very seldom that the scientists recognizes that our Forefathers, in a simple intuitive and spiritual way, could experience the cosmological data concerning the position of our Solar system and its position in our Galaxy.