One of the most confused myths is the Flood Myth, which is
interpreted as a "divine revenge" sent by god in order to punish humans for all
kind of wrongdoings.
This confusion derives from the loss of mythical
knowledge of our Milky Way Mythology and it´s connected symbols. Here the Milky
Way band is mythically named by humans as a "river in the Sky" but this is
historically and scholarly interpreted and confused as a real flood which god
once sent over the entire Earth.
The Milky Way River/Flood runs of course OVER
the Earth up in the Sky and not On the earth. -
Deluge myth and Flood Myths
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Great Flood" redirects here. For other uses, see
Great Flood (disambiguation).
Deluge", frontispiece to
illustrated edition of the Bible. Based on the story of
this shows humans and a tiger doomed by the flood futilely attempting to
save their children and cubs.
Deluge", from the second bay of the
Sistine Chapel ceiling
1834. Oil in canvas.
deluge myth or flood myth is a
story of a great flood sent by a
or deities to destroy
as an act of
It is a theme widespread among many cultures, though it is perhaps best
known in modern times through the
Epic of Gilgamesh.
Flood myths in various cultures
Ancient Near East
The earliest extant flood legend is contained in the fragmentary
datable by its script to the 17th century BCE.[citation
The story tells how the god
(meaning "he saw life," in reference to the gift of immortality given
him by the gods), of the gods' decision to destroy mankind in a
flood—the passage describing why the gods have decided this is lost.
Enki instructs Ziusudra (also known as Atrahasis) to build a large
boat—the text describing the instructions is also lost. After which he
is left to repopulate the earth, as in many other flood legends.
After a flood of seven days, Zi-ud-sura makes appropriate sacrifices and
(chief of the gods), and is given eternal life in
Eden) by An and Enlil.
Babylonian (Epic of Gilgamesh)
Epic of Gilgamesh
"Deluge tablet" (tablet 11) of the Epic of Gilgamesh in
Epic of Gilgamesh,
toward the end of the He who saw the deep version by
there are references to the great flood (tablet 11). This was a late
addition to the Gilgamesh cycle, largely paraphrased or copied verbatim
from the Epic of Atrahasis[citation
The hero Gilgamesh, seeking
a kind of paradise on earth. Utnapishtim tells how
(equivalent of the Sumerian Enki) warned him of the gods' plan to
destroy all life through a great flood and instructed him to build a
vessel in which he could save his family, his friends, and his wealth
and cattle. After the Deluge the gods repented their action and made
The best-known version of the Jewish deluge legend is contained in the
Book of Genesis
(Genesis 6–9). Its date of writing is unknown, somewhere between 1450BC
and 450BC. Two
both later than Genesis, contain elaborations on the Genesis story.
Genesis tells how "...the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great
in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was
only evil continually. And the Lord was sorry that He had made man on
the earth, and was grieved in His heart. So the Lord said, 'I will blot
out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to
animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky; for I am grieved
that I have made them.'"
a man who "found favor in the eyes of the Lord"
and commands him to build an
to save Noah, his family, and the Earth's animals and birds. After Noah
builds the ark, "all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the
floodgates of the sky were opened".
Rain falls for 40 days, the water rises 150 days, and all the high
mountains are covered.
On the 27th of Cheshvan of the year 1657 from Creation, "the earth
dried" (Genesis 8:14) completing the 365-day duration of the Great
Flood. The ark rests on the mountains, the water recedes for 150 days,
until the waters are gone and Noah opens up the ark. At this point Noah
sends out a
and then a
to see if the flood waters have receded. Noah and the animals leave the
ark, Noah offers a sacrifice to God, and God places a rainbow in the
clouds as a sign that he will never again destroy the Earth by water.
2nd century BCE
1st Book of Enoch
adds to the Genesis flood story by saying that God sent the Great Flood
to rid the earth of the
the titanic children of the
the "sons of God" mentioned in Genesis, and of human females. The book
is an elaboration of the Genesis account obsessed with chronology (it
promotes the idea that history is based on a 49-year cycle, the biblical
tells a story similar to the Judeo-Christian Genesis flood story, the
major differences being that only Noah and few believers from the laity
enter the ark. Noah's son (one of four) and his wife refused to enter
the ark thinking they will manage the flood by themselves. The Quranic
ark comes to rest on
traditionally identified with a mountain near
the name appears to derive from the local name of the
although this is not certain.
There are many sources of flood legends in ancient Chinese literature.
Some appear to refer to a worldwide deluge but most versions record only
a regional flood - a number of them have a theme of men taming floods
caused by hostile nature gods, some based on historical events.
or "Book of History", probably written around 500 BCE or earlier,
states in the opening chapters that Emperor Yao is facing the
problem of flood waters that "reach to the Heavens". This is the
backdrop for the intervention of the famous
who succeeded in controlling the floods. He went on to found the
first Chinese dynasty.
The translator of the 1904 edition dated the Chinese deluge to 2348
BCE, calculating that this was the same year as the biblical flood.
In fact, it is considered by many historians that the Mideast flood
legend (including the biblical flood) was erroneously linked to a
flood mentioned in the
Sumerian king list,
which was actually dated to 2900 BCE.
"Classic of the Mountain & Seas", ends with the Chinese ruler
spending ten years to control a deluge whose "floodwaters overflowed
concentrated at the bank of
near present day
also believed that the severe flooding along the river bank was caused
(representing gods) living in the river being angered by the mistakes of
Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish,
from a devotional text.
was the first
According to the
(I-8, 1-6), the
to the king of pre-ancient Dravida, Satyavata who later becomes known as
was washing his hands in a river when a little fish swam into his hands
and begged him to save its life. He put it in a jar, which it soon
outgrew; he successively moved it to a tank, a river and then the ocean.
The fish then warned him that a deluge would occur in a week that would
destroy all life. Manu therefore built a boat which the fish towed to a
mountaintop when the flood came, and thus he survived along with some "seeds of life" to re-establish life on earth. Hindu religious
tradition holds the Bhagavata Purana to be one of the works of Vyasa
written at the beginning of Kali Yuga (about c.3100 BCE).
legends of the aboriginal
people became remiss of the commands given to them at the creation.
the god creator, ceased to visit them and then without further warning
sent a devastating flood. Only four people survived this flood: two men,
Loralola and Poilola, and two women, Kalola and Rimalola. When they
landed they found they had lost their fire and all living things had
perished. Puluga then recreated the animals and plants but does not seem
to have given any further instructions, nor did he return the fire to
traditions, the earth rests on a giant snake, Naga-Padoha. One day, the
snake tired of its burden and shook the Earth off into the sea. However,
the God Batara-Guru saved his daughter by sending a mountain into the
sea, and the entire human race descended from her. The Earth was later
placed back onto the head of the snake.
According to some
Australians, in the
a huge frog drank all the water in the world and a drought swept across
the land. (Tidalik — this story originates from the Murray-Darling
riverina of New South Wales and Victoria. The Murray-Darling frequently
experiences drought-flood cycles lasting up to years at a time, linked
to El Niño/La Niña events in the Pacific) The only way to finish the
drought was to make the frog laugh. Animals from all over
gathered together and one by one attempted to make the frog laugh. When
finally the eel succeeded, the frog opened his sleepy eyes, his big body
quivered, his face relaxed, and, at last, he burst into a laugh that
sounded like rolling thunder. The water poured from his mouth in a
flood. It filled the deepest rivers and covered the land. Only the
highest mountain peaks were visible, like islands in the sea. Many men
and animals were drowned. The pelican who was blackfella at that time
painted himself with white clay and went from island to island in a
great canoe, rescuing other blackfellas. Since that time pelicans have
been black and white in remembrance of the Great Flood.
a tradition of the
tribe of the east coast of New Zealand's North Island,
became angry when his father Uenuku elevated his younger half-brother
Kahutia-te-rangi ahead of him. Ruatapu lured Kahutia-te-rangi and a
large number of young men of high birth into his canoe, and took them
out to sea where he drowned them. He called on the gods to destroy his
enemies and threatened to return as the great waves of early summer. As
he struggled for his life, Kahutia-te-rangi recited an incantation
invoking the southern humpback whales (paikea in Māori) to carry
him ashore. Accordingly, he was renamed
and was the only survivor (Reedy 1997:83-85).
Some versions of the Māori story of
contain episodes where the hero causes a flood to destroy the village of
his two jealous brothers-in-law. A comment in Grey's Polynesian
Mythology may have given the Māori something they did not have
before — as A.W Reed put it, "In Polynesian Mythology Grey said
that when Tawhaki's ancestors released the floods of heaven, the earth
was overwhelmed and all human beings perished — thus providing the Māori
with his own version of the universal flood" (Reed 1963:165, in a
footnote). Christian influence has led to the appearance of genealogies
where Tawhaki's grandfather Hema is reinterpreted as Shem, son of Noah
of the biblical deluge.
According to the legend of the Temuan, one of the 18
tribes of peninsular Malaysia, the "celau" (storm of punishment) is for
the sin of the people who angered the gods and ancestors so much that a
great flood was sent in punishment. Only two of the Temuan tribes, Mamak
and Inak Bungsuk, survived the flood by climbing the Eaglewood tree at
"Gunung Raja" (Royal Mountain), which thereafter became the birth place
and ancestral home of the Temuan tribe.
Greek mythology knows three floods. The flood of
the flood of
and the flood of
two of which ended two
Ages of Man:
the Ogygian Deluge ended the Silver Age, and the flood of Deucalion
ended the First Bronze Age.
"The consequence is, that in comparison of what then was, there
are remaining only the bones of the wasted body, as they may be
called, as in the case of small islands, all the richer and
softer parts of the soil having fallen away, and the mere
skeleton of the land being left."
The Ogygian flood is so called because it occurred in the time of
a mythical king of
Ogyges is somewhat synonymous with "primeval", "primal" and "earliest
dawn". Others say he was the founder and king of
In many traditions the Ogygian flood is said to have covered the whole
world and was so devastating that Attica remained without kings until
the reign of
Book III, estimates that this flood occurred 10,000 years before his
time. Also in
(22) and in
(111-112) he describes the "great deluge of all" happening 9,000 years
before the time of
10th millennium BCE.
In addition, the texts report that "many great deluges have taken place
during the nine thousand years" since Athens and
during 10,000 BCE.
The theory of the
flood in the Aegean Basin
proposes that a great flood occurred at the end of the
or beginning of the
The Holocene is a geological period that began approximately 11,550
calendar years BP (or about 9600 BCE) and continues to the present. This
flood would coincide with the end of the last
estimated at approximately 10,000 years ago, when the
rose as much as 130 metres, particularly during
Meltwater pulse 1A
when sea level rose by about 25 metres in some parts of the
over a period of less than 500 years.
The map on the right shows how the region would look about 12,000 years
ago, or 10,000 BCE, when the sea level would have been 125 meters lower
than today. The
was connected to the mainland and the
was not formed. Islands around
were part of the mainland. The
formed a big island known as Aegeis, while the
were not formed yet.
These geological findings support the hypothesis that the Ogygian Deluge
may well be based on a real event.
legend as told by
has some similarity to Noah's Ark:
advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished
except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in
were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was
overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife
after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on
An older version of the story told by Hellanicus has Deucalion's "ark"
Another account has him landing on a peak, probably Phouka, in
later called Nemea. When the rains ceased, he sacrificed to Zeus. Then,
at the bidding of Zeus, he threw stones behind him, and they became men,
and the stones which Pyrrha threw became women. Appollodorus gives this
for Greek Laos "people" as derived from laas "stone". The
Megarians told that Megarus, son of Zeus, escaped Deucalion's flood by
swimming to the top of Mount Gerania, guided by the cries of
This one has the same basic story line. According to
Dionysius of Halicarnassus,
Dardanus left Pheneus in
to colonize a land in the North-East
Aegean Sea. When the Dardanus'
deluge occurred, the land was flooded and the mountain on which he and
his family survived, formed the island of
Samothrace. He left Samothrace on
an inflated skin to the opposite shores of
Asia Minor and settled at the foot
of Mount Ida. Due to the fear of another flood they didn't build a city,
but lived in the open for fifty years. His grandson
Tros eventually built a city, which
Troy after him.
From The Theogony of Apollodorus
This one has the same basic story line as Deucalion. Prometheus moulded
men out of water and earth and gave them also fire, which, unknown to
Zeus, he had hidden in a stalk of fennel. But when Zeus learned of it,
he ordered Hephaestus to nail his body to Mount Caucasus, which is a
Scythian mountain. On it Prometheus was nailed and kept bound for many
years. Every day an eagle swooped on him and devoured the lobes of his
liver, which grew by night. That was the penalty that Prometheus paid
for the theft of fire until Hercules afterwards released him.
And Prometheus had a son Deucalion. He reigning in the regions about
Phthia, married Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, the
first woman fashioned by the gods. And when Zeus would destroy the men
of the Bronze Age, Deucalion by the advice of Prometheus constructed a
chest, and having stored it with provisions he embarked in it with
Pyrrha. But Zeus by pouring heavy rain from heaven flooded the greater
part of Greece, so that all men were destroyed, except a few who fled to
the high mountains in the neighbourhood and Peloponnesus was
overwhelmed. But Deucalion, floating in the chest over the sea for nine
days and as many nights, drifted to Parnassus, and there, when the rain
ceased, he landed and sacrificed to Zeus, the god of Escape. And Zeus
sent Hermes to him and allowed him to choose what he would, and he chose
to get men.
And at the bidding of Zeus he took up stones and threw them over his
head, and the stones which Deucalion threw became men, and the stones
which Pyrrha threw became women. Hence people were called metaphorically
people (Laos) from laas, "a stone." And Deucalion had children by
Pyrrha, first Hellen, whose father some say was Zeus, and second
Amphictyon, who reigned over Attica after Cranaus, and third a daughter
Protogonia, who became the mother of Aethlius by Zeus. Hellen had Dorus,
Xuthus, and Aeolus by a nymph Orseis. Those who were called Greeks he
named Hellenes after himself, and divided the country among his sons.
Xuthus received Peloponnese and begat Achaeus and Ion by Creusa,
daughter of Erechtheus, and from Achaeus and Ion the Achaeans and
lonians derive their names. Dorus received the country over against
Peloponnese and called the settlers Dorians after himself.
Aeolus reigned over the regions about Thessaly and named the inhabitants
Aeolians. He married Enarete, daughter of Deimachus, and begat seven
sons, Cretheus, Sisyphus, Athamas, Salmoneus, Deion, Magnes, Perieres,
and five daughters, Canace, Alcyone, Pisidice, Calyce, Perimede.
Perimede had Hippodamas and Orestes by Achelous; and Pisidice had
Antiphus and Actor by Myrmidon. Alcyone was married by Ceyx, son of
Lucifer. These perished by reason of their pride, for he said that his
wife was Hera, and she said that her husband was Zeus. But Zeus turned
them into birds; her he made a kingfisher (alcyon) and him a gannet
there are two separate deluges. According to the
the first occurred at the dawn of time before the world was formed.
was killed by the
and his brothers
and when he fell, so much blood flowed from his wounds that it drowned
almost the entire race of giants with the exception of the frost giant
and his wife. They escaped in a ship and survived, becoming the
progenitors of a new race of giants. Ymir's body was then used to form
the earth while his blood became the sea.
The second, in the Norse mythological time cycle, is destined to occur
in the future during the final battle between the gods and giants, known
During this apocalyptic event,
the great World Serpent that lies beneath the sea surrounding
the realm of mortals, will rise up from the watery depths to join the
conflict, resulting in a catastrophic flood that will drown the land.
However, following Ragnarök the earth will be reborn and a new age of
humanity will begin.
The mythologist Brian Branston noted the similarities between this
legend and an incident described in the
which had traditionally been associated with the biblical flood, so
there may have been a corresponding incident in the broader
as well as in
According to the
apocryphal history of Ireland
Lebor Gabála Érenn,
the first inhabitants of Ireland led by Noah's granddaughter
were all except one wiped out by a flood 40 days after reaching the
island. Later, after
people reached the island, another flood rose and killed all but thirty
of the inhabitants, who scattered across the world. As it was Christian
who first wrote the story down[citation
(it had previously been oral tradition), it is likely that references to
the Biblical Noah were inserted into the story, in an attempt to
rune entitled "Haava" (The Wound, section 8),
attempts a heroic feat that results in a gushing wound, the blood from
which covers the entire earth. This deluge is not emphasized in the
Kalevala version redacted by
but the global quality of the flood is evident in original variants of
the rune. In one variant collected in
in 1803/04, the rune tells:
The blood came forth like a flood
the gore ran like a river:
there was no hummock
and no high mountain
that was not flooded
all from Väinämöinen's toe
from the holy hero's knee.
the analysis by
he notes that the rune's motifs of constructing a boat, a wound, and a
flood have parallels with flood legends from around the world.
flood story from an illustration by R.C. Armour, in his book North
American Indian Fairy Tales, Folklore and Legends, (1905).
mythology, Manabus, the trickster, "fired by his lust for revenge" shot
two underground gods when the gods were at play. When they all dived
into the water, a huge flood arose. "The water rose up .... It knew very
well where Manabus had gone." He runs, he runs; but the water, coming
from Lake Michigan, chases him faster and faster, even as he runs up a
mountain and climbs to the top of the lofty pine at its peak. Four times
he begs the tree to grow just a little more, and four times it obliges
until it can grow no more. But the water keeps climbing "up, up, right
to his chin, and there it stopped": there was nothing but water
stretching out to the horizon. And then Manabus, helped by diving
animals, and especially the bravest of all, the Muskrat, creates the
world as we know it today.
mythology, evil and wickedness among men causes them to kill each other.
This causes great sorrow to the creator-sun-god, who weeps tears that
become rains sufficient to trigger a deluge. The people attempt to
survive by traveling in bark canoes, but only a single old man and woman
survive to populate the earth.
mythology, four monsters grew in size and power until they touched the
sky. At that time, a man heard a voice telling him to plant a hollow
reed. He did so, and the reed grew very big very quickly. The man
entered the reed with his wife and pairs of all good animals. Waters
rose, and covered everything but the top of the reed and the heads of
the monsters. A turtle then killed the monsters by digging under them
and uprooting them. The waters subsided, and winds dried the earth.
the people moved away from Sotuknang, the creator, repeatedly. He
destroyed the world by fire, and then by cold, and recreated it both
times for the people that still followed the laws of creation, who
survived by hiding underground. People became corrupt and warlike a
third time. As a result, Sotuknang guided the people to Spider Woman,
and she cut down giant reeds and sheltered the people in the hollow
stems. Sotuknang then caused a great flood, and the people floated atop
the water in their reeds. The reeds came to rest on a small piece of
land, and the people emerged, with as much food as they started with.
The people traveled on in their canoes, guided by their inner wisdom
(which is said to come from Sotuknang, through the door at the top of
their head). They travelled to the northeast, passing progressively
larger islands, until they came to the Fourth World. When they reached
the fourth world, the islands sank into the ocean.
large number of flood myths are known from Mesoamerica, some clearly
have Christian influence, but others are believed by scholars to
represent native flood myths of precolumbian origin.
One myth documented among the
has a man and his dog as the sole survivors of the deluge, but the man
finds out that the dog takes the shape of a woman during the day when he
is away - the man and the dogwoman then repopulates the earth. Another
myth found among the
peoples relate how a human couple survive by hiding in a hollow vessel
and start to cook a fish when the water subsides - when the smoke
reaches the heaven the gods become angry and punish them by turning them
into dogs or monkeys depending on the version.
Maya mythology as expressed in the
the creator gods attempted to create creatures who would worship them
three times before finally succeeding in creating a race of humans that
would pay proper homage to their creatores. The three previous creations
were destroyed. The third race of humans carved from wood were destroyed
by a flood, mauled by wild animals and smashed by their own tools and
Maya flood myths recorded by
Diego de Landa
and in the
of Chumayel holds that the only survivors of the flood were the four
Bacabs who took their places as upholders of the four corners of the
Mesoamerican myth a variety of reasons are given for the occurrence of
the flood: either the world was simply very old and needed to be
renewed, or the humans had neglected their duty to adore the gods, or
they were punished for a transgression for example cannibalism. Many of
the modern myths included obviously Christian references such as the
murder of Abel by Cain as the reason. In Mesoamerican myth the flood was
but one of several destructions of the creation - usually the first of
three or four such cataclysmic events, although there is some evidence
that the Aztecs considered the flood to be the fourth of them. A large
number of Mesoamerican flood myths, especially recorded among the Nahua
(Aztec) peoples tell that there were no survivors of the flood and
creation had to start from scratch, while other accounts relate that
current humans are descended from a small number of survivors, in some
accounts the survivors transgress against the gods by lighting a fire,
and consequently are turned into animals. Horcasitas acknowledges that
the dog-wife tale and the tale of transgression by fire and subsequent
turning into animals of the flood survivors may be of precolumbian
destroyed the giants with a Great Flood, and two people repopulated the
earth. Uniquely, they survived in sealed caves. See
Legend of Trentren Vilu and Caicai Vilu
says that a battle between two mythical serpents provoked a Great Flood;
and subsequently created the Mapuche world as we know it today.
Several different flood stories are recorded among the Polynesians. None
of them approaches the scale of the Biblical flood.
The people of
tell of two friends, Te-aho-aroa and
who went fishing and accidentally woke the ocean god Ruahatu with their
fish hooks. Angered, he vowed to sink Ra'iatea below the sea.
Te-aho-aroa and Ro'o begged for forgiveness, and Ruahatu warned them
that they could escape only by bringing their families to the islet of
Toamarama. These set sail, and during the night, the island slipped
under the ocean, only to rise again the next morning. Nothing survived
except for these families, who erected sacred marae (temples)
dedicated to the god Ruahatu.
similar legend is found on
No reason for the tragedy is given, but the whole island sank beneath
the sea except for Mount Pitohiti. One human couple managed to flee
there with their animals and survived.
a human couple,
and Lili-noe, survived a flood on top of
on the Big Island. Nu'u made sacrifices to the moon, to whom he
mistakenly attributed his safety.
the creator god, descended to earth on a rainbow, explained Nu'u's
mistake, and accepted his sacrifice.
the great war god
was angered by critical remarks made by his sister Hii-hia. His tears
tore through heaven's floor to the world below and created a torrent of
rain carrying everything in its path. Only six people survived.
Hypotheses of origin of flood legends
The publication of
The First Fossil Hunters by Adrienne Mayor,
followed by Fossil Legends of the First Americans, have caused
the hypothesis that flood stories have been inspired by ancient
observations of seashells and fish inland and on mountains to gain
ground. Though the Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, and Chinese all commented
in ancient writings about seashells and fish that they found inland and
in the mountains, it was
Leonardo da Vinci
who postulated that an immediate deluge could not have caused the
layered and neatly-ordered strata he found in the Italian
The Greeks hypothesized that Earth had been covered by water several
times, and noted the seashells and fish fossils found on mountain tops
as the evidence for this belief. Native Americans also expressed this
belief to early Europeans, though they had not written these ideas down
Some geologists believe that quite dramatic, greater-than-normal
of rivers in the distant past might have influenced the legends. One of
the latest, and quite controversial, hypotheses of this type is the
which argues for a catastrophic deluge about 5600 BCE from the
This has been the subject of considerable discussion, and a news article
National Geographic News
in February 2009 reported that the flooding might have been "quite
There has also been speculation that a large
in the Mediterranean Sea caused by the
dated ca. 1630–1600 BCE geologically, was the historical basis for
folklore that evolved into the Deucalion myth. However, the tsunami hit
it did not affect cities in the mainland of Greece such as
which continued to prosper, therefore it had a local rather than a
Another theory is that a
crashed into the
in prehistoric times around 2800-3000 BCE, created the 30 kilometres
(19 mi) undersea
and generated a giant tsunami that flooded coastal lands.
has been postulated that the Deluge myth may be based on the sudden rise
in sea levels caused by the sudden draining of prehistoric
at the end of the last Ice Age, roughly 8,400 years before the present.
Proponents of flood geology contend that the biblical deluge,
is to be taken literally in which most observed geological processes
(like fossilization and sedimentary strata) are a later result of this
While some people hold the belief there was a worldwide flood, flood
geology itself has been rejected by mainstream
most of whom consider it
Though at one time even prominent workers in
were willing to argue support for flood geology,
this view is no longer widely held.
Sumerian king list flood
Sumerian flood myth
Sumerian king list
mentions a flood which divides older, possibly mythic kingships from
more recent and possibly historic kingships in
In the 1920s, archaeologists associated this historic flood with a layer
of riverine deposits which interrupted Sumerian settlements over a wide
area of southern Mesopotamia. This led to speculation at the time that
the flood mentioned in Noah's ark had been found, by trying to connect
Ancient Near East
flood legend (beginning with the Sumerian
and continuing with the later
legend, the Utnapishtim episode in the
Epic of Gilgamesh,
and Noah's Ark) with this historic flood. However, there is no evidence
that the flood legend in the
was the same as the historic flood mentioned in the king list, or that
the Sumerians themselves ever linked them together.
a well-known part of
the flood myth has appeared in various films and stories. A notable
Robert A. Heinlein's
which combines a worldwide flood with the sinking of the
A recent example is the 2009 film "2012"
who portraits a worldwide flood and crust shift that only a selected
group survives using specially-built modern arks. Expeditions searching
for Noah's ark on
have been filmed and shown on television. In
Orson Scott Card's
a character uses a machine to look into the past and see the moment
rising sea levels led to the sudden flooding of the Red Sea, which was a
lowland pasture until the ocean crumbled the narrow isthmus and let the
waters from the Gulf of Aden coming pouring in.